Using RPKI Data¶
Validation is a key part of any public key infrastructure. The value from signing comes with validation, and should always be done by the party relying on the data. If validation is outsourced to a third party, you can never be certain if the data is complete, or tampered with in any way.
Operators who want to deploy route origin validation in their BGP decision making process have to fetch and validate all of the published RPKI data. As with any PKI, you have to start with one or more entities you are prepared to trust. In the case of RPKI, these are the five Regional Internet Registries.
Connecting to the Trust Anchor¶
When you want to retrieve all RPKI data, you connect to the trust anchor that each RIR provides. The root certificate contains pointers to its children, which contain pointers to their children, and so on. These certificates, and other cryptographic material such as ROAs, can be published in the repository that the RIR provides, or a repository operated by an organisation who either runs delegated RPKI themselves, or hosts a repository as a service. As a person who wants to fetch and validate the data, formally known as a relying party, it is not a concern where data is published. By simply connecting to the trust anchor, the chain of trust is followed automatically.
The RIR trust anchor is found through a static trust anchor locator (TAL), which is a very simple file that contains a URL to retrieve the trust anchor and a public key to verify its authenticity. The reason the TAL exists is because it’s very likely that the contents of the self signed root certificate change, due to resource transfers between RIRs. By using a TAL, the data in the trust anchor can change, without it needing to be redistributed.
Fetching and Verifying¶
Various open source relying party software packages, also known as RPKI validators, are available in order to download, verify and process RPKI data. Please note that most RPKI validators come preinstalled with TALs for all RIRs except the one for ARIN, as they require users to first review and agree to their Relying Party Agreement.
When the validator runs, it will start retrieval at each of the RIR trust anchors and follows the chain of trust to fetch all published certificates and ROAs. Fetching data was originally done via rsync but RIRs and software developers are gradually migrating to the RPKI Repository Delta Protocol (RRDP) for retrieval, standardised in RFC 8182. This protocol uses HTTPS, which makes development and implementation easier, and opens up possibilities for Content Delivery Networks to participate in serving RPKI data. Work to deprecate rsync altogether is ongoing in the IETF.
Once the data has been downloaded, the validator will verify the signatures on all objects and output the valid route origins as a list. Each object in this list contains an IP prefix, a maximum length, and an origin AS number. This object is referred to as validated ROA payload (VRP). The collection of VRPs is known as the validated cache.
Objects that do not pass cryptographic verification are discarded. Any statements made about route origins are not considered, as if a ROA was never published. As a result, they will not affect any route announcements.
Please note that objects that do not pass cryptographic verification are sometimes referred to as ‘invalid ROAs’, but we like to avoid this term because validity is used elsewhere in a different context.
Fetching and verification of data should be performed periodically, in order to process updates. Though the standards recommend retrieval at least once every 24 hours, current operational practice recommends that processing updates every 30 to 60 minutes is reasonable.
As explained in the Route Origin Validation section, when comparing VRPs to the route announcements seen in BGP, it will have an effect on their RPKI validity state. They can be:
- The route announcement is covered by at least one VRP. The term covered means that the prefix in the route announcement is equal, or more specific than the prefix in the VRP.
- The prefix is announced from an unauthorised AS, or the announcement is more specific than is allowed by the maxLength set in a VRP that matches the prefix and AS.
- The prefix in this announcement is not, or only partially covered by a VRP.
Please carefully note the use of the word validity. Because RPKI revolves around signing and verifying cryptographic objects, it’s easy to confuse this term with the validity state of a BGP announcement. As mentioned, it can occur that a ROA doesn’t pass cryptographic verification, for example because it expired. As a result, it is discarded and will not affect any BGP announcement. In turn, only a validated ROA payload—sometimes referred to as ‘valid ROA’—can make a BGP announcement Valid or Invalid.
A route announcement may be covered by several VRPs. For example, there may be a VRP for the aggregate announcement, which overlaps with a customer announcement of a more specific prefix from a different AS. A route announcement will be Valid as long as there is one covering VRP that authorises it.
Based on the three validity outcomes, operators can make an informed decision what to do with the BGP route announcements they see. As a general guideline, announcements with Valid origins should be preferred over those with NotFound or Invalid origins. Announcements with NotFound origins should be preferred over those with Invalid origins.
As origin validation is deployed incrementally, the amount of IP address space that is covered by a ROA will gradually increase over time. Therefore, accepting the NotFound validity should be done for the foreseeable future.
For route origin validation to succeed in its objective, operators should ultimately drop all BGP announcements that are marked as Invalid. Before taking this step, organisations should first analyse the effects of doing this, to avoid unintended results. Initially accepting Invalid announcements and giving them a lower preference, as well as tagging them with a BGP community is a good first step to measure this.
Sometimes there is an operational need to accept Invalid announcements temporarily. Local overrides allow you to manage your own exceptions to the validated cache. This ensures that you remain in full control of the VRPs used by your routers. For example, if an Invalid origin is the result of a misconfigured ROA, you may accept it until the operator in question has resolved the issue. A format named SLURM is available for this, which is standardised in RFC 8416.
SLURM provides several ways to achieve exceptions. First, you can add a VRP specifically for the affected route by specifying the correct ASN, prefix and maximum length. Secondly, you can filter out an existing VRP, thereby moving the route back to NotFound state. In general, the former is the safer way, as it deals better with changing ROAs. Lastly, it is possible to allow all routes from a certain ASN or prefix. It is advised to use overrides with care, as liberal usage may have unintended consequences.
The validated cache can be fed directly into RPKI-capable routers via the RPKI to Router Protocol (RPKI-RTR), described in RFC 8210. Many routers, including Cisco, Juniper, Nokia, as well as BIRD and OpenBGPD support processing the validated cache. Alternatively, most validators can export the cache in various useful formats for processing outside of the router, in order to set up filters.
Note that your router does not perform any of the cryptographic validation, this is all handled by the relying party software. In addition, using RPKI causes minimal overhead for routers and has a negligible influence on convergence speed. Validation happens in parallel with route learning for new prefixes which are not yet in the cache. Those prefixes will be marked as Valid, Invalid, or NotFound as the information becomes available, after which the correct policy is applied.
Please keep in mind that the RPKI validator software you run in your network fetches cryptographic material from the outside world. To do this, it needs at least ports 873 and 443 open for rsync and HTTPS, respectively. In most cases, the processed data is fed to a router via RPKI-RTR over a clear channel, as it’s running in your local network. Currently, only Cisco IOS-XR provides a practical means to secure transports for RPKI-RTR, using SSH.
It is recommended to run multiple validator instances as a failover measure. The router will use the union of RPKI data from all validators to which they are connected. This means that (temporary) differences in the validated cache produced by the validators, for example due to differing fetching intervals, does not pose a problem.
In the Router Support section we will look at which routers support route origin validation, and how to get started with each.